The age-old debate of whether it’s better to work out in the morning or not has been a topic of much discussion among fitness enthusiasts and experts alike. While some swear by the benefits of morning workouts, others argue that it’s better to exercise at other times of the day. So, what’s the truth behind this debate? In this article, we’ll explore the benefits and drawbacks of morning workouts, and help you make an informed decision about when to exercise for optimal results. Get ready to unpack the morning workout debate and discover what’s best for your body and your schedule.
Is It Better to Work Out in the Morning? Examining the Science
There is a longstanding debate among fitness enthusiasts and experts about whether it is better to work out in the morning or not. While some argue that morning workouts offer numerous benefits, others contend that exercising at other times of the day can be just as effective. To explore this topic further, let’s examine the science behind morning workouts.
Benefits of Morning Workouts
Morning workouts have been shown to offer several benefits, including:
- Increased energy levels: Many people find that they have more energy in the morning, which can make it easier to push through a tough workout.
- Improved metabolism: Some studies suggest that morning exercise can boost metabolism, leading to increased calorie burn and weight loss.
- Better sleep: Exercise can help regulate sleep patterns, and morning workouts may promote deeper, more restful sleep at night.
- Enhanced mood: Working out in the morning can release endorphins, which are natural mood boosters that can help reduce stress and anxiety.
Drawbacks of Morning Workouts
While there are certainly benefits to morning workouts, there are also some potential drawbacks to consider, including:
- Difficulty waking up early: For some people, waking up early to exercise can be challenging, especially if they are not natural morning people.
- Reduced muscle gains: Some research suggests that working out in the morning may interfere with muscle recovery and growth, potentially leading to reduced gains over time.
- Limited time: For those with busy schedules, finding time to exercise in the morning can be difficult, especially if they need to get to work or other commitments.
- Disrupted routine: Some people may find that morning workouts disrupt their normal routine, making it harder to stick to other important tasks throughout the day.
So, is it better to work out in the morning? The answer may depend on individual preferences and circumstances. While there are certainly benefits to morning workouts, they may not be suitable for everyone. It’s important to consider personal goals, schedules, and preferences when deciding whether to exercise in the morning or at other times of the day.
The Circadian Rhythm and Exercise
The circadian rhythm is a biological process that regulates various physiological and behavioral functions in living organisms, including humans. This rhythm is driven by an internal biological clock that is influenced by environmental cues, such as light and darkness. Exercise has been shown to affect the circadian rhythm in both animals and humans, with morning exercise having a more pronounced effect on the system.
Morning Exercise and the Circadian Rhythm
Studies have found that morning exercise can help to entrain the circadian rhythm, which is the process of synchronizing the internal biological clock with the external environment. This is particularly important for individuals who have irregular sleep-wake patterns, such as night shift workers or teenagers. Exercise has been shown to advance the phase of the circadian rhythm, which can help to improve sleep quality and timing.
However, it is important to note that the effect of exercise on the circadian rhythm can vary depending on the time of day and the intensity of the workout. For example, a study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology found that a morning workout can help to advance the circadian rhythm, but an evening workout can actually delay it. This may be due to the fact that the body’s natural response to exercise is to release cortisol, a hormone that can help to increase alertness and energy. When this hormone is released in the evening, it can interfere with the body’s natural sleep processes, leading to poorer sleep quality.
The Impact of Morning Exercise on Physical Performance
In addition to its effects on the circadian rhythm, morning exercise has also been shown to have a positive impact on physical performance. This is because the body is more primed for exercise in the morning, when it is rested and energized. Research has shown that morning exercise can improve endurance, strength, and power, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammation.
However, it is important to note that the benefits of morning exercise on physical performance may vary depending on the individual’s personal preferences and habits. Some people may find that they perform better in the evening, after a period of rest and recovery. Ultimately, the best time to exercise may depend on a variety of factors, including personal schedule, workout goals, and individual preferences.
In conclusion, the debate over whether it is better to work out in the morning or not is a complex one, with both benefits and drawbacks to consider. While morning exercise has been shown to have a positive impact on the circadian rhythm and physical performance, it is important to take into account individual differences and preferences when deciding on a workout routine.
Metabolic Benefits of Morning Workouts
Research has shown that exercising in the morning can have a positive impact on an individual’s metabolism. This section will delve into the specifics of how morning workouts can affect metabolism and why they may be beneficial for some individuals.
- Increased Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
Morning workouts have been found to increase an individual’s Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR), which is the number of calories their body burns at rest. When muscles are stimulated through exercise, the body responds by increasing the number of mitochondria in the muscle cells, which leads to an increase in the body’s overall metabolic rate. This means that even after the workout is completed, the body continues to burn more calories than it would have otherwise.
- Boosted Thermogenesis
Thermogenesis is the process by which the body burns calories to generate heat. Morning workouts have been shown to increase thermogenesis, which can help the body burn more calories throughout the day. This is particularly beneficial for individuals who are trying to lose weight or maintain a healthy weight.
- Improved Insulin Sensitivity
Morning workouts have also been found to improve insulin sensitivity, which is the body’s ability to use insulin effectively to regulate blood sugar levels. Improved insulin sensitivity can help prevent type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
While the metabolic benefits of morning workouts are clear, it is important to note that not everyone will experience the same benefits. Factors such as age, gender, and individual fitness level can impact the effectiveness of morning workouts on metabolism. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before making any significant changes to one’s exercise routine.
Cardiovascular Benefits of Morning Workouts
- Enhanced Circulation: Research indicates that engaging in physical activity in the morning may improve circulation by increasing blood flow and oxygenation to the muscles. This effect may be attributed to the body’s natural response to physical stimuli, as well as the fact that blood vessels are more compliant in the morning, allowing for greater blood flow.
- Improved Endothelial Function: A study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology found that morning exercise resulted in improved endothelial function, which is essential for maintaining cardiovascular health. Endothelial cells play a crucial role in regulating blood flow, blood pressure, and the formation of blood clots. By improving their function, morning workouts may contribute to better overall cardiovascular health.
- Lower Blood Pressure: Some research suggests that exercising in the morning may help lower blood pressure. This effect may be due to the body’s natural diurnal rhythms, which cause blood pressure to increase throughout the day. By exercising in the morning, individuals may be able to counteract this natural rise in blood pressure and maintain lower levels throughout the day.
- Increased Glucose Uptake: Exercise has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in muscle tissue. Morning workouts may be particularly beneficial in this regard, as the body’s insulin sensitivity tends to be higher in the morning. By exercising at this time, individuals may be able to improve their glucose uptake and reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
- Reduced Inflammation: Inflammation is a natural part of the body’s response to physical activity, but chronic inflammation can contribute to a host of health problems. Some research suggests that morning workouts may help reduce inflammation by decreasing the production of cytokines, which are pro-inflammatory molecules. This effect may be particularly beneficial for individuals who are at a higher risk of developing chronic inflammation-related diseases.
It is important to note that while the benefits of morning workouts are numerous, individual responses may vary depending on factors such as age, fitness level, and overall health. Additionally, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new exercise regimen, especially if there are pre-existing health conditions or concerns.
Respiratory and Lung Function Improvements
Numerous studies have shown that morning exercise can significantly improve respiratory and lung function. The benefits are particularly pronounced in individuals with respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exercise has been found to increase lung capacity, reduce inflammation in the airways, and improve overall respiratory endurance. Additionally, working out in the morning may also help to improve the body’s ability to utilize oxygen more efficiently, leading to improved physical performance during both endurance and strength-based activities.
One study found that participants who exercised in the morning showed a significant improvement in their forced expiratory volume (FEV), a measure of lung function, compared to those who exercised in the evening. Another study found that morning exercise improved lung function in individuals with asthma, leading to reduced symptoms and improved quality of life. Furthermore, morning exercise has been shown to increase the production of protein in the body that helps to repair and strengthen muscles, including those involved in breathing.
Overall, the benefits of morning exercise on respiratory and lung function are numerous and varied. However, it is important to note that individual results may vary and that individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions should consult with their healthcare provider before starting a new exercise routine.
Psychological Benefits of Morning Workouts
Research has shown that working out in the morning can have significant psychological benefits. These benefits can include increased energy levels, improved mood, and better mental clarity.
Increased Energy Levels
One of the most notable psychological benefits of morning workouts is increased energy levels. When you exercise in the morning, your body releases endorphins, which are natural mood-boosters. These endorphins can help you feel more alert and energized throughout the day, making it easier to tackle tasks and stay focused.
Morning workouts can also have a positive impact on your mood. Exercise has been shown to be an effective way to reduce stress and anxiety, and working out in the morning can set a positive tone for the rest of the day. By starting your day with a workout, you may feel more confident and empowered, which can help improve your overall mood.
Better Mental Clarity
In addition to increased energy levels and improved mood, morning workouts can also provide better mental clarity. Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function, including memory and focus. By working out in the morning, you may find that you are better able to concentrate and make decisions throughout the day.
Overall, the psychological benefits of morning workouts can have a significant impact on your overall well-being. By incorporating exercise into your morning routine, you may find that you feel more energized, focused, and positive throughout the day.
Muscle Recovery and Growth
The Role of Sleep in Muscle Recovery
The process of muscle recovery is essential for optimal performance during physical activity. A study conducted by the University of California, Los Angeles, found that sleep plays a crucial role in muscle recovery and growth. During sleep, the body releases hormones such as growth hormone and testosterone, which promote muscle growth and repair.
Morning Workouts and Muscle Recovery
Morning workouts have been shown to enhance muscle recovery due to the increased levels of growth hormone and testosterone released during sleep. Researchers at the University of Tokyo found that individuals who exercised in the morning had higher levels of growth hormone compared to those who exercised in the evening. This increased level of growth hormone helps to repair and rebuild muscle tissue, leading to improved muscle recovery.
The Impact of Morning Workouts on Muscle Growth
In addition to enhancing muscle recovery, morning workouts have also been shown to promote muscle growth. A study conducted by the University of Wisconsin found that individuals who exercised in the morning experienced greater gains in muscle size and strength compared to those who exercised in the evening. This is likely due to the increased levels of testosterone and growth hormone released during sleep, which promote muscle growth and repair.
Considerations for Individualized Workout Schedules
While the benefits of morning workouts for muscle recovery and growth are clear, it is important to consider individualized workout schedules. Some individuals may find that their performance and recovery are improved by exercising in the evening, rather than the morning. It is essential to experiment with different workout schedules to determine what works best for each individual’s unique needs and preferences.
In conclusion, morning workouts have been shown to enhance muscle recovery and growth due to the increased levels of growth hormone and testosterone released during sleep. However, it is important to consider individualized workout schedules and experiment with different routines to determine what works best for each individual’s unique needs and preferences.
The Pros and Cons of Morning Workouts
Pros of Morning Workouts
- Increased Energy Levels: One of the primary benefits of morning workouts is that they can provide an energy boost for the rest of the day. This is because exercise releases endorphins, which are natural mood-boosters.
- Better Time Management: Morning workouts can help with time management by incorporating exercise into your daily routine. This can make it easier to stay on track with fitness goals and can help avoid procrastination.
- Improved Sleep Quality: Research has shown that morning exercise can lead to better sleep quality. This is because it can help regulate the body’s internal clock and improve the depth and duration of sleep.
- Increased Productivity: Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function and productivity. Morning workouts can help you start the day feeling refreshed and focused, which can lead to increased productivity and better overall performance.
Cons of Morning Workouts
- Difficulty in Waking Up Early: For some people, the biggest drawback of morning workouts is simply getting out of bed early enough to fit in a workout. This can be especially challenging for those who are not natural morning people.
- Limited Time: Morning workouts may not be feasible for everyone due to time constraints. For those with busy schedules, it may be easier to exercise at other times of the day.
- Increased Hunger: Some people find that morning workouts increase their appetite, which can make it difficult to stick to a calorie-controlled diet. This may be especially true for those who engage in high-intensity workouts that burn a lot of calories.
- Disrupted Sleep: While some research suggests that morning exercise can improve sleep quality, others have found that it can disrupt sleep patterns and lead to insomnia. This may be especially true for those who engage in intense workouts close to bedtime.
Exercise in the morning has been shown to increase energy levels, improve mood, and enhance cognitive function throughout the day. This is because the body’s metabolism is at its highest in the morning, making it the most effective time to burn calories and improve overall health. Additionally, working out in the morning can help to reduce stress and anxiety, leading to a more productive and fulfilling day.
One potential drawback of morning workouts is that they may negatively impact an individual’s sleep quality. Research has shown that engaging in physical activity shortly before bedtime can increase body temperature, heart rate, and other physiological measures, which can disrupt the body’s natural sleep cycle. Additionally, morning workouts may require individuals to wake up earlier, which can be challenging for those who are not naturally early risers. This can lead to feelings of grogginess and fatigue, which can in turn impact performance during the workout itself. Furthermore, some individuals may find that morning workouts do not provide enough time for adequate warm-up and cool-down periods, which can increase the risk of injury.
Alternatives to Morning Workouts
For those who prefer not to exercise in the morning, there are alternative times of day that can be just as effective for physical activity. Here are some options to consider:
- Lunchtime Workouts: Many people find that midday is the perfect time to fit in a workout. The gym is usually less crowded, and the mid-day sun can provide a pleasant atmosphere for outdoor activities. Additionally, exercising during lunchtime can help boost energy levels and reduce stress, making it easier to tackle the rest of the day.
- Evening Workouts: Exercising in the evening can be a great way to unwind after a long day. It can also help to reduce any pent-up energy and provide a sense of accomplishment before heading to bed. Some people find that working out in the evening helps them to fall asleep more easily.
- Morning Workouts: For those who are not morning people, an evening workout may be more appealing. However, for those who do wake up early and feel energized, a morning workout can be a great way to start the day. Morning workouts can also help to improve mood and increase focus throughout the day.
- Outdoor Activities: For those who prefer to be active outdoors, there are plenty of options available. Jogging, cycling, or even walking the dog can be great ways to get some exercise in without having to hit the gym.
Overall, the best time to exercise is the time that works best for you. Whether it’s early in the morning, during lunch, or in the evening, the important thing is to find a routine that you enjoy and that helps you to stay active and healthy.
Exercising in the evening has its own set of advantages and drawbacks, making it an alternative to morning workouts.
Advantages of Evening Workouts
- Increased Alertness: Contrary to the common belief that exercise makes you tired, studies have shown that moderate-intensity exercise in the evening can actually increase alertness and improve cognitive performance.
2. Reduced Stress: Evening workouts may help in reducing stress levels by promoting relaxation and releasing endorphins, leading to a better night’s sleep.
- Improved Sleep Quality: A study published in the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation found that performing resistance training exercises in the evening can lead to improved sleep quality due to the release of melatonin.
Drawbacks of Evening Workouts
- Reduced Energy: Some individuals may experience a reduction in energy levels after an evening workout, potentially impacting their productivity and focus.
- Disrupted Sleep: Intensive or high-intensity workouts in the evening can lead to a disrupted sleep pattern, particularly in those who engage in workouts close to bedtime.
- Risk of Injury: Exercising in low light conditions may increase the risk of injury, especially for individuals participating in high-impact or high-intensity activities.
In conclusion, evening workouts offer their own set of benefits and drawbacks. While they may improve alertness and sleep quality, they can also lead to reduced energy levels and disrupted sleep patterns. Ultimately, the choice between morning or evening workouts depends on individual preferences, schedules, and fitness goals.
A split workout is a training approach where exercises are divided into different days, typically focusing on specific muscle groups each day. This allows for a more balanced training routine over a longer period.
- Improved recovery: By splitting the workout routine, the body has more time to recover between sessions, which can lead to better overall performance and fewer injuries.
- Individualized focus: Split workouts enable a more focused approach for each muscle group, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of the training.
- Better scheduling: Athletes and fitness enthusiasts can better manage their time by splitting workouts throughout the day, making it easier to accommodate other activities or commitments.
- Consistency: Split workouts may require a higher level of self-discipline to maintain consistency in training and follow the designated schedule.
- Reduced overall volume: Splitting workouts can result in a lower overall training volume, which might not be suitable for individuals seeking significant strength or hypertrophy gains.
- Equipment constraints: If the gym is unavailable for certain parts of the day, split workouts may not be practical for some individuals.
In conclusion, split workouts can be an effective alternative to morning workouts, offering improved recovery, focused training, and better scheduling options. However, it is essential to consider potential drawbacks such as maintaining consistency, reduced overall volume, and equipment availability.
Active recovery is a popular alternative to morning workouts for individuals who prefer a more low-intensity approach to fitness. It involves engaging in light physical activity to promote recovery and reduce muscle soreness, rather than pushing oneself to the limit. Some examples of active recovery exercises include:
- Light jogging or brisk walking
- Yoga or Pilates
- Stretching or foam rolling
- Swimming or aqua aerobics
The benefits of active recovery include:
- Reduced muscle soreness and fatigue
- Improved circulation and lymphatic drainage
- Enhanced mental clarity and focus
- Increased flexibility and mobility
In contrast to high-intensity morning workouts, active recovery allows individuals to focus on their body’s natural processes of recovery and repair, rather than pushing themselves to the limit. It can be a great option for those who are looking for a more gentle approach to fitness, or for those who are recovering from an injury or illness. Additionally, active recovery can be easily incorporated into a daily routine, making it a convenient option for busy individuals.
Making the Right Choice for Your Fitness Goals
Choosing the right time to exercise is a personal decision that depends on individual fitness goals, schedules, and preferences. The debate surrounding morning workouts centers around the belief that they provide several benefits over evening workouts. However, the effectiveness of morning workouts may vary depending on individual circumstances. It is essential to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of morning workouts to make an informed decision.
Factors to Consider
Before making a decision, it is crucial to consider the following factors:
- Personal Schedule: Morning workouts may not be feasible for individuals with busy schedules, especially those who have to wake up early to commute to work or school.
- Sleep Quality: People who have trouble sleeping may find that evening workouts disrupt their sleep patterns, while morning workouts may be more beneficial for those who wake up feeling refreshed.
- Energy Levels: Some people may find that they have more energy in the morning, making morning workouts more effective. However, others may prefer evening workouts because they feel more energized later in the day.
- Fitness Goals: The type of exercise and the intensity of the workout may also play a role in determining the best time to exercise. For example, high-intensity workouts may be more effective in the morning, while low-intensity workouts may be better in the evening.
Advantages of Morning Workouts
Morning workouts have been shown to provide several benefits, including:
- Increased Energy: Exercising in the morning can increase energy levels throughout the day, leading to better productivity and mood.
2. Improved Metabolism: Morning workouts may help to boost metabolism, leading to increased calorie burning throughout the day.
- Better Sleep: Exercise has been shown to improve sleep quality, and morning workouts may help to regulate sleep patterns and improve the quality of rest.
- Increased Motivation: Starting the day with exercise may provide a sense of accomplishment and motivation to continue healthy habits throughout the day.
Disadvantages of Morning Workouts
While morning workouts have several advantages, they may not be suitable for everyone. Some potential drawbacks include:
- Lack of Time: Morning workouts may require waking up earlier, which may not be feasible for individuals with busy schedules.
- Disrupted Sleep: For some people, exercising in the morning may disrupt sleep patterns, leading to fatigue and decreased productivity.
- Lack of Energy: Morning workouts may be challenging for individuals who do not feel their best in the morning.
Inconvenience: Morning workouts may require waking up earlier, which may be inconvenient for individuals who prefer to sleep in or have a later start to their day.
- Morning vs Evening: Decide whether you are a morning person or an evening person. Consider your natural energy levels and when you feel most alert and refreshed.
- Intensity: Assess your tolerance for physical strain. Are you comfortable with high-intensity workouts or do you prefer lighter exercises?
- Duration: Determine how much time you can commit to a workout session. Do you have a limited window or are you willing to allocate more time?
- Workout Type
- Cardio vs Strength Training: Assess your fitness goals. Are you looking to burn calories, build muscle, or improve endurance?
- Equipment vs No Equipment: Consider the resources available to you. Do you have access to a gym or prefer bodyweight exercises at home?
- Group vs Solo: Decide whether you prefer the motivation and accountability of a group class or the solitude of individual workouts.
- Flexibility: Evaluate your daily routine and identify potential time slots for a workout. Are you able to wake up early or prefer to exercise after work?
- Consistency: Consider how consistent you can be with your workout schedule. Will you be able to commit to a morning routine or do you prefer a more flexible schedule?
- Recovery Time: Assess how much time you need to recover between workouts. Do you have enough time in the morning to allow for proper rest and rejuvenation?
By taking these factors into account, you can make an informed decision about whether a morning workout is the right choice for your fitness goals. Remember, there is no one-size-fits-all approach, and what works for one person may not work for another. It’s essential to prioritize your personal preferences, goals, and schedule to create a sustainable and effective workout routine.
Creating a Personalized Workout Plan
A well-crafted workout plan is the cornerstone of any successful fitness journey. To create a personalized workout plan, it is important to consider your individual needs, preferences, and goals.
One key factor to consider is your fitness level. If you are new to working out, it is essential to start slowly and gradually increase the intensity of your workouts over time. On the other hand, if you are an experienced athlete, you may need to challenge yourself with more intense workouts to continue making progress.
Another important consideration is your available time and schedule. It is crucial to design a workout plan that fits seamlessly into your daily routine, so you are more likely to stick with it. For example, if you prefer to work out in the morning, you may want to focus on high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or yoga to energize you for the day ahead.
In addition to your fitness level and schedule, it is also essential to consider your personal preferences. Some people enjoy group classes, while others prefer the solitude of solo workouts. Some prefer weightlifting, while others prefer cardio. By considering your preferences, you can create a workout plan that you look forward to each day.
Creating a personalized workout plan also involves setting realistic goals. It is important to set both short-term and long-term goals to keep you motivated and on track. Short-term goals may include losing a certain amount of weight or improving your cardiovascular endurance, while long-term goals may include running a marathon or completing a triathlon.
In conclusion, creating a personalized workout plan is crucial to achieving your fitness goals. By considering your fitness level, schedule, preferences, and goals, you can design a workout plan that works for you and helps you stay motivated and engaged.
Consistency is Key
- Establishing a morning workout routine can foster a sense of commitment and discipline
- Morning workouts may serve as a powerful motivator to kickstart the day with purpose and drive
- Regular exercise, regardless of the time of day, has been shown to enhance overall well-being and promote healthy habits
- However, individual preferences and lifestyle factors must be considered
- Some individuals may find it easier to exercise in the morning due to increased energy levels and reduced stress
- Others may prefer later workout sessions to accommodate their sleep patterns and daily routines
- The key to reaping the benefits of morning workouts lies in establishing a consistent routine
- Consistency is crucial for both physical and mental health benefits
- Experiment with different times and types of workouts to determine what works best for your personal goals and lifestyle
- Stay committed to your routine, even on weekends or during vacations, to maintain momentum and progress towards your fitness objectives
1. What are the benefits of working out in the morning?
Working out in the morning has been shown to increase energy levels, improve mental clarity, and boost metabolism. It can also help to reduce stress and anxiety, as well as provide a sense of accomplishment and motivation for the rest of the day. Additionally, morning workouts can help to regulate sleep patterns and improve the quality of sleep.
2. Are there any drawbacks to working out in the morning?
One potential drawback to working out in the morning is that it may interfere with your sleep schedule. If you are someone who needs to wake up early to get a good workout in, it may be difficult to fall asleep later in the day. Additionally, if you are someone who does not function well in the morning, you may find that your workouts are less effective or enjoyable.
3. Is it better to work out in the morning or evening?
The best time to work out is a personal preference and can depend on factors such as your schedule, energy levels, and overall health. Some people may find that they have more energy and focus in the morning, while others may prefer the relaxation and wind-down of an evening workout. Ultimately, the most important thing is to find a consistent time that works for you and that you enjoy.
4. Can I still see results if I work out in the morning?
Yes, you can still see results from working out in the morning. The time of day that you work out does not have a significant impact on the effectiveness of your workout or your overall fitness goals. As long as you are consistently working out and eating a healthy diet, you will see progress over time.
5. What types of workouts are best in the morning?
Any type of workout can be done in the morning, but some people may find that they have more energy and endurance for higher-intensity workouts. Additionally, incorporating cardio into your morning routine can help to boost your metabolism and give you an extra energy boost for the rest of the day. However, it is important to listen to your body and choose workouts that are enjoyable and sustainable for you.